The tradition of their greatest imaginative writer, Gottfried Keller, is continued by Jacob Schaffner, who was originally a working shoemaker. If he had had greater power of concentration he might have become a master in his art. His best novel, though somewhat long drawn out, is Konrad Pilater, a genial, wise, and peculiarly German book, instinct with cosmopolitan sympathy. Albert Steffen, in his Bestimmung der Roheit, plunged deeply into mysticism; this novel is a kind of modern life of a saint, a dream of the expiation of the guilt of mankind by the divine power of the soul.
He used a legend of his Silesian homeland in order to tell the story of a vagabond who thinks himself Christ come back to earth. He collects like a chronicler the contradictory reports about this remarkable case, for which there was no psychological explanation. This enables him to describe in a masterly fashion the religious atmos- phere in which Messianic expectations and ecstatic visions are possible. Hauptmann's Silesian countryman, Hermann Stehr, sets out by plunging his narrative art into the depths of mysticism; he is a visionary, with special organs of perception which find their way equally well in the fourth dimension Geschichten aus dem Mandelhaus; Der Heiligenhof.
With somewhat rash enthusiasm Jacob Wassermann in his Christian Wahnschaffe sends out a scion of the modern plutocracy among the people, in order that, like a new St. Francis of Assisi, he may take upon himself all the sorrow and guilt of humanity.
Wassermann exhibits a more trustworthy artistic instinct in his earlier novels, Die Geschichte der jungen Renate Fuchs, Caspar Hauser, and in two excellent collections of stories, Der goldene Spiegel and Drei Schwestern. His Franconian countryman, Bernhard Kellermann, whose talent is characterized by flexi- bility, accommodated himself, after the sensational success of his Tunnel, to the contemporary demand for thrilling situations with the verisimilitude of everyday life.
Gustav Meyrinck acquired his sway over the public mainly by his fanciful novels Der Golem and Das grune Gesicht. Meyrinck made occultism and satanism popular; he is a most enterprising manager in respect. The place of the novel which educates or develops was taken by the romantic variety which preceded the expressionist type.
Thomas Mann, who so successfully told the tale of the Budden- brooks, approximated to this type with his novel Konigliche Hoheit, somewhat of a fairy tale in its story of the marriage of an impoverished German prince with an intellectual dollar-princess. A far more powerful performance is his Der Tod in Venedig, the story of a writer who comes to a tragic end as the result of an abnormal but platonic passion. With Gregor's unexpected incapacitation, the family is deprived of their financial stability. Although Gregor's sister Grete now shies away from the sight of him, she takes to supplying him with food, which they find he can only eat rotten.
Gregor begins to accept his new identity and begins crawling on the floor, walls and ceiling. Discovering Gregor's new pastime, Grete decides to remove some of the furniture to give Gregor more space. She and her mother begin taking furniture away, but Gregor finds their actions deeply distressing. He desperately tries to save a particularly-loved portrait on the wall of a woman clad in fur.
His mother loses consciousness at the sight of Gregor clinging to the image to protect it. As Grete rushes to assist her mother, Gregor follows her and is hurt by a medicine bottle falling on his face. His father returns home from work and angrily tosses apples at Gregor. One of them is lodged into a sensitive spot in his back and severely wounds him. Gregor suffers from his injuries for several weeks and takes very little food.
He is increasingly neglected by his family and his room becomes used for storage. To secure their livelihood, the family takes three tenants into their apartment.
The cleaning lady alleviates Gregor's isolation by leaving his door open for him on the evenings that the tenants eat out. One day, his door is left open despite the presence of the tenants. Gregor, attracted by Grete's violin-playing in the living room, crawls out of his room and is spotted by the unsuspecting tenants, who complain about the apartment's unhygienic conditions and cancel their tenancy.
Grete, who has by now become tired of taking care of Gregor and is realizing the burden his existence puts on each one in the family, tells her parents they must get rid of "it", or they will all be ruined.
Gregor, understanding that he is no longer wanted, dies of starvation before the next sunrise. The relieved and optimistic family take a tram ride out to the countryside, and decide to move to a smaller apartment to further save money.
During this short trip, Mr. Samsa realize that, in spite of going through hardships which have brought an amount of paleness to her face, Grete appears to have grown up into a pretty and well-figured lady, which leads her parents to think about finding her a husband. Gregor is the main character of the story. He works as a traveling salesman in order to provide money for his sister and parents.
He wakes up one morning finding himself transformed into an insect. After the metamorphosis, Gregor becomes unable to work and is confined to his room for most of the remainder of the story. This prompts his family to begin working once again. Gregor is depicted as isolated from society and often misunderstands the true intentions of others. The name "Gregor Samsa" appears to derive partly from literary works Kafka had read.
Sacher-Masoch wrote Venus in Furs , a novel whose hero assumes the name Gregor at one point. A "Venus in furs" literally recurs in The Metamorphosis in the picture that Gregor Samsa has hung on his bedroom wall. Grete is Gregor's younger sister, who becomes his caretaker after his metamorphosis.
Initially Grete and Gregor have a close relationship, but this quickly fades. While Grete initially volunteers to feed him and clean his room, she grows increasingly impatient with the burden and begins to leave his room in disarray out of spite. Her initial decision to take care of Gregor may have come from a desire to contribute and be useful to the family, since she becomes angry and upset when the mother cleans his room, and it is made clear that Grete is disgusted by Gregor; she could not enter Gregor's room without opening the window first because of the nausea he caused her, and leaves without doing anything if Gregor is in plain sight.
She plays the violin and dreams of going to the conservatory, a dream Gregor had intended to make happen; Gregor had planned on making the announcement on Christmas Day. To help provide an income for the family after Gregor's transformation, she starts working as a salesgirl.
Grete is also the first to suggest getting rid of Gregor, which causes Gregor to plan his own death.
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At the end of the story, Grete's parents realize that she has become beautiful and full-figured and decide to consider finding her a husband. Samsa is Gregor's father. After the metamorphosis, he is forced to return to work in order to support the family financially. His attitude towards his son is harsh; he regards the transformed Gregor with disgust and possibly even fear, and he attacks him on several occasions.
Samsa is Grete and Gregor's mother. She is initially shocked at Gregor's transformation; however, she wants to enter his room. This proves too much for her, thus giving rise to a conflict between her maternal impulse and sympathy, and her fear and revulsion at Gregor's new form. The Charwoman is an old lady who is employed by the Samsa family to help take care of their household duties. Apart from Grete and her father, she is the only person who is in close contact with Gregor. She is the one who notices that Gregor has died and disposes of his body.
She was very fearful of Gregor in his condition. Like most Kafka works, The Metamorphosis tends to entail the use of a religious Max Brod or psychological interpretation by most of its interpreters.
Besides the psychological approach, interpretations focusing on sociological aspects which see the Samsa family as a portrayal of general social circumstances, have gained a large following as well. Not available in stores. This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it.
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As the central narrative theme he makes out the artist's struggle for existence in a society replete with philistines that destroys him step by step. Free postage Opens image gallery Image not available Photos not available for this variation. This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. Select Parent Grandparent Teacher Kid at heart. For other uses, see Metamorphosis disambiguation.
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